Waleed Al Habeeb, Department of Cardiac Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaFollow
Adel Tash, Consultant Cardiac surgeon, Adult cardiac surgery, Ministry of Health, Jeddah, National Heart Center Saudi Health Council Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Abdelfatah Elasfar, Madinah Cardiac Center, Madinah, Saudi Arabia; Cardiology department, Heart center, Tanta University, Egypt
Ali ALmasood, Consultant Cardiologist, Specialized Medical Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Abeer Bakhshi, Heart function and Transplant, Prince Sultan Cardiac Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Fayez Elshaer, King Khaled University Hospital; King Fahad Cardiac Center; King Saud university, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; National Heart Institute, Cairo, Egypt
Fakhr Al Ayoubi, Intensivist Cardiology Pharmacist Department of Cardiac Sciences KFCC College of Medicine; Adjunct Assistant Professor College of Pharmacy, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Kamal Alghalaini, Professor of cardiology, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Maryam Alqaseer, Consultant Cardiologist, Heart Failure, King Fahad Specialist Hospital Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Mosaad Alhussein, College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdul-Aziz university for health sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Heart Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh
Osama Almogbel, Department of Cardiac Sciences, College of Medicine, King Fahad Cardiac Center, King Saud University Medical City, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Shukri AlSaif, Department of Cardiology, Saud AlBabtain Cardiac Centre, Dammam
Yahia AlHebeshi, Prince Sultan Cardiac Center Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Background: The burden of cardiovascular diseases is undeniable in local populations, who have high mortality rates and a young age of disease onset. A systematic review of emerging evidence and update of the Saudi Heart Association (SHA) 2019 heart failure (HF) guidelines was therefore undertaken. Methodology: A panel of expert cardiologists reviewed recommendations of the 2019 guidelines following the Saudi Heart Association methodology for guideline recommendations. When needed, the panel provided updated and new recommendations endorsed by the national heart council that are appropriate for clinical practice and local resources in Saudi Arabia. Recommendations and conclusion: The focused update describes the appropriate use of clinical assessment as well as invasive and non-invasive modalities for the classification and diagnosis of HF. The prevention of HF was emphasized by expanding on both primary and secondary prevention approaches. Pharmacological treatment of HF was supplemented with recommendations on newer therapies, such as SGLT-2 inhibitors. Recommendations were also provided on the management of patients with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular co-morbidities, with a focus on cardio-oncology and pregnancy. Updated clinical algorithms were included in support of HF management in both the acute and chronic settings. The implementation of this focused update on HF management in clinical practice is expected to lead to improved patient outcomes by providing evidence-based comprehensive guidance for practitioners in Saudi Arabia.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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